Stacking of capacitive cells for electrical energy production by salinity exchange
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AutorIglesias, Guillermo R.; Ahualli, Silvia; Fernández, M. Mar; Jiménez Olivares, María Luisa; Delgado, Ángel V.
Activated carbon particlesCapacitive energy extractionDouble layer expansionSupercapacitorsSoft electrodesSeries capmix association
Iglesias, G.R.; et al. Stacking of capacitive cells for electrical energy production by salinity exchange. Journal of Power Sources, 318: 283-290 (2016). [http://hdl.handle.net/10481/41031]
PatrocinadorMICINN, Spain (Project FIS2013-47666-C3-1R); RYC-2014-16901 (MINECO); FEDER Funds EU
In this paper we explore methods for stacking individual cells in order to increase the amount of energy that can be extracted from salinity gradient cycles (capmix methods). Each of the cells consists of a pair of parallel electrodes made of activated carbon particles, either bare or coated by a layer of polyelectrolyte. In these methods, energy is produced based on the modifications in the electrical double layer (EDL) structure in the pores of the carbon particles upon exchange of the salinity of the surrounding medium. In the case of the bare carbon particles, the electrodes are externally charged in presence of high-salt concentration, and discharged after exchanging the solution for a dilute one (sea- vs. river-water cycles). In a first stacking approach, we simply connect the electrodes side-by-side and only the outermost ones can be connected to the external source. Using a stack where potential and current between cells can be measured, it is shown that only the external electrodes seem to work, and it is suggested that this is a consequence of internal short-circuit currents between oppositely charged electrodes of different cells through the electrolyte. In contrast, the side-by-side configuration is operational if coated electrodes are used.