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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10481/37221

Title: Energy Intake, Profile, and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study
Authors: Ruiz, Emma
Ávila, José Manuel
Valero, Teresa
Pozo, Susana del
Rodríguez, Paula
Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier
Gil Hernández, Ángel
González Gross, Marcela
Ortega, Rosa M.
Serra-Majem, Lluis
Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio
Issue Date: 2015
Abstract: Energy intake, and the foods and beverages contributing to that, are considered key to understanding the high obesity prevalence worldwide. The relative contributions of energy intake and expenditure to the obesity epidemic, however, remain poorly defined in Spain. The purpose of this study was to contribute to updating data of dietary energy intake and its main sources from food and beverages, according to gender and age. These data were derived from the ANIBES (“Anthropometry, Intake, and Energy Balance in Spain”) study, a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the Spanish population (from 9–75 years old). A three-day dietary record, collected by means of a tablet device, was used to obtain information about food and beverage consumption and leftovers. The final sample comprised 2009 individuals (1,013 men, 996 women). The observed mean dietary energy intake was 7.6 ± 2.11 MJ/day (8.2 ± 2.22 MJ/day for men and 6.9 ± 1.79 MJ/day for women). The highest intakes were observed among adolescents aged 13–17 years (8.4 MJ/day), followed by children 9–12 years (8.2 ± 1.80 MJ/day), adults aged 18–64 (7.6 ± 2.14 MJ/day) and older adults aged 65–75 years (6.8 ± 1.88 MJ/day). Cereals or grains (27.4%), meats and derivatives (15.2%), oils and fats (12.3%), and milk and dairy products (11.8%) contributed most to daily energy intake. Energy contributions from non-alcoholic beverages (3.9%), fish and shellfish (3.6%), sugars and sweets (3.3%) and alcoholic beverages (2.6%) were moderate to minor. Contributions to caloric profile were 16.8%E from proteins; 41.1%E from carbohydrates, including 1.4%E from fiber; 38.5%E from fats; and 1.9%E from alcohol intake. We can conclude that energy intake is decreasing in the Spanish population. A variety of food and beverage groups contribute to energy intake; however, it is necessary to reinforce efforts for better adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet.
Sponsorship: The study was financially supported by Coca-Cola Iberia.
Publisher: MDPI
Keywords: Energy intake
Dietary energy sources
Dietary surveys
Food intake
ANIBES study
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10481/37221
ISSN: 2072-6643
Rights : Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 License
Citation: Ruiz, E.; et al. Energy Intake, Profile, and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study. Nutrients, 7(6): 4739-4762 (2015). [http://hdl.handle.net/10481/37221]
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