Predicting biases in very highly educated samples: Numeracy and metacognition
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Society for Judgment and Decision Making
NumeracyRisk literacyIndividual differencesCognitive abilitiesSuperior decision makingJudgment biasMetacognitionConfidenceDual systems
Ghazal, S.; Cokely, E.T.; García-Retamero, R. Predicting biases in very highly educated samples: Numeracy and metacognition. Judgment and Decision Making, 9(1): 15-34 (2014). [http://hdl.handle.net/10481/35297]
We investigated the relations between numeracy and superior judgment and decision making in two large community outreach studies in Holland (n=5408). In these very highly educated samples (e.g., 30–50% held graduate degrees), the Berlin Numeracy Test was a robust predictor of financial, medical, and metacognitive task performance (i.e., lotteries, intertemporal choice, denominator neglect, and confidence judgments), independent of education, gender, age, and another numeracy assessment. Metacognitive processes partially mediated the link between numeracy and superior performance. More numerate participants performed better because they deliberated more during decision making and more accurately evaluated their judgments (e.g., less overconfidence). Results suggest that well-designed numeracy tests tend to be robust predictors of superior judgment and decision making because they simultaneously assess (1) mathematical competency and (2) metacognitive and self-regulated learning skills.