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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10481/34984

Title: The Maristán stigma scale: a standardized international measure of the stigma of schizophrenia and other psychoses
Authors: Saldivia, Sandra
Runte Geidel, Ariadne
Grandón, Pamela
Torres González, Francisco
Xavier, Miguel
Antonioli, Claudio
Ballester, Dinarte
Melipillán, Roberto
Galende, Emiliano
Vicente, Benjamín
Caldas, José Miguel
Killaspy, Helen
Gibbons, Rachel
King, Michael
Issue Date: 2014
Abstract: Background: People with schizophrenia face prejudice and discrimination from a number of sources including professionals and families. The degree of stigma perceived and experienced varies across cultures and communities. We aimed to develop a cross-cultural measure of the stigma perceived by people with schizophrenia.
Method: Items for the scale were developed from qualitative group interviews with people with schizophrenia in six countries. The scale was then applied in face-to-face interviews with 164 participants, 103 of which were repeated after 30 days. Principal Axis Factoring and Promax rotation evaluated the structure of the scale; Horn’s parallel combined with bootstrapping determined the number of factors; and intra-class correlation assessed test-retest reliability.
Results: The final scale has 31 items and four factors: informal social networks, socio-institutional, health professionals and self-stigma. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.84 for the Factor 1; 0.81 for Factor 2; 0.74 for Factor 3, and 0.75 for Factor 4. Correlation matrix among factors revealed that most were in the moderate range [0.31-0.49], with the strongest occurring between perception of stigma in the informal network and self-stigma and there was also a weaker correlation between stigma from health professionals and self-stigma. Test-retest reliability was highest for informal networks [ICC 0.76 [0.67 -0.83]] and self-stigma [ICC 0.74 [0.64-0.81]]. There were no significant differences in the scoring due to sex or age. Service users in Argentina had the highest scores in almost all dimensions.
Conclusions: The MARISTAN stigma scale is a reliable measure of the stigma of schizophrenia and related psychoses across several cultures. A confirmatory factor analysis is needed to assess the stability of its factor structure.
Sponsorship: We are also grateful for support from the Pan-American Health Office (PAHO), Camden and Islington NHS Foundation Trust and University College London (UCL).
Publisher: Biomed Central
Keywords: Stigma
Rating scale schizophrenia
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10481/34984
ISSN: 1471-244X
Citation: Saldivia, S.; et al. The Maristán stigma scale: a standardized international measure of the stigma of schizophrenia and other psychoses. BMC Psychiatry, 14: 182 (2014). [http://hdl.handle.net/10481/34984]
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