A Cross-sectional Serological Study of Cysticercosis, Schistosomiasis, Toxocariasis and Echinococcosis in HIV-1 Infected People in Beira, Mozambique
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AuthorNoormahomed, Emilia Virginia; Nhacupe, Noémia; Mascaró Lazcano, Carmen; Natane Mauaie, Manuel; Buene, Titos; Funzamo, Carlos Abel; Benson, Constance Ann
Public Library of Science (PLOS)
CysticercosisEchinococcosisEpilepsyHIVHelminthsHighly-active antiretroviral therapySchistosomiasisToxocariasisSIDA / VIH
Moormahomed, E.V.; et al. A Cross-sectional Serological Study of Cysticercosis, Schistosomiasis, Toxocariasis and Echinococcosis in HIV-1 Infected People in Beira, Mozambique. Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, 8(9): e3121 (2014). [http://hdl.handle.net/10481/33539]
SponsorshipThe study was funded by the US National Institutes of Health through an International Pilot Grant from the UCSD Center for AIDS Research ((http://cfar.ucsd.edu/), grant number NIAID 5 P30 AI 036214. The Parasitology laboratory was renovated and equipped with support from the Gilead Foundation (Foster City, CA, USA (http://www.gilead.com/)). The manuscript writting was sponsored by Grant Number R24TW008908 from the Fogarty International Center (http://www.nih.gov/), to whom we express our gratitude. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the “Fogarty International Center or the National Institutes of Health.” This award is supported by funds provided to the NIH and HRSA under the “Tom Lantos and Henry Hyde United States Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Reauthorization Act of 2008,” Public Law 110–293, which is more commonly known as the U.S. Presidents Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). Co-funding is also provided by the NIH Office of Research on Women's Health and the Office of AIDS Research.
Background: Helminthic infections are highly endemic in Mozambique, due to limited access to healthcare and resources for disease prevention. Data on the subclinical prevalence of these diseases are scarce due to the fact that an immunological and imaging diagnosis is not often available in endemic areas. We conducted a cross-sectional study on HIV1+ patients from Beira city in order to determine the seroprevalence of cysticercosis, schistosomiasis, toxocariasis and echinoccocosis and its possible interaction with HIV infection. Methodology/Principal Findings: Patients (601) were voluntarily recruited at the Ponta Gea Health Center and their demographic and clinical data were recorded (including CD4+ cell count and antiretroviral regimen). Mean age was 39.7 years, 378 (62.9%) were women and 223 (37.1%) were men. Four hundred seventy-five (475) patients (79%) were already on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and 90 started therapy after being enrolled in the study. For serological testing we used a Multiplex Western Blot IgG from LDBIO Diagnostics. The overall seroprevalence was 10.2% for cysticercosis, 23% for schistosomiasis, 7.3% for toxocariasis and 17.3% for echinococcosis. Conclusions/Significance: Neither age nor the CD4+ count were significantly associated with the seroprevalence of the helminths studied. However, patients with CD4+ between 200–500/µl had a higher seroprevalence to all helminths than those with less than 200/µl cells/and those with more than 500 cells/µl. Female gender was significantly associated with cysticercosis and schistosomiasis, and being in HAART with toxocariasis. Headache was significantly associated with cysticercosis and toxocariasis. There was no association between epilepsy and seropositivity to any of the parasites. The study concluded that a clear understanding of the prevalence and manifestations of these coinfections, how best to diagnose subclinical cases, and how to manage diseases with concomitant antiretroviral therapy is needed.