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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10481/33399

Title: Special structures of hoopoe eggshells enhance the adhesion of symbionts-carrying uropygial secretion to prevent embryo infection
Authors: Martín-Vivaldi, Manuel
Soler Cruz, Juan José
Peralta-Sánchez, Juan Manuel
Arco, Laura
Martín-Platero, Antonio Manuel
Martínez Bueno, Manuel
Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena
Valdivia Martínez, Eva
Issue Date: 2014
Abstract: 1. Animals live in a bacterial world, and detecting and exploring adaptations favouring mutualistic relationships with antibiotic-producing bacteria as a strategy to fight pathogens are of prime importance for evolutionary ecologists. 2. Uropygial secretion of European hoopoes (Upupa epops, Linnaeus) contains antimicrobials from mutualistic bacteria that may be used to prevent embryo infection. Here, we investigated the microscopic structure of hoopoe eggshells looking for special features favouring the adhesion of antimicrobial uropygial secretions. 3. We impeded female access to the uropygial gland and compared microscopic characteristics of eggshells, bacterial loads of eggs and of uropygial secretion, and hatching success of experimental and control females. Then, we explored the link between microbiological characteristics of uropygial secretion and these of eggs of hoopoes, as well as possible fitness benefits. 4. The microscopic study revealed special structures in hoopoes' eggshells (crypts). The experimental prevention of females' gland access demonstrated that crypts are filled with uropygial secretion and that symbiotic enterococci bacteria on the eggshells come, at least partially, from those in the female's uropygial gland. Moreover, the experiment resulted in a higher permeability of eggshells by several groups of bacteria and in elimination of the positive relationships detected for control nests between hatching success and density of symbiotic bacteria, either in the uropygial secretion of females or on the eggshell. 5. The findings of specialized crypts on the eggshells of hoopoes, and of video-recorded females smearing secretion containing symbiotic bacteria at a high density onto the eggshells strongly support a link between secretion and bacteria on eggs. Moreover, the detected associations between bacteria and hatching success suggest that crypts enhancing the adhesion of symbiont-carrying uropygial secretion likely protect embryos against infections.
Sponsorship: Support by funding was provided by Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, European funds (FEDER) (CGL2009-14006, CGL2010-19233-C03-01 and CGL2010-19233-C03-03) and Junta de Andalucía (P09-RNM-4557).
Publisher: British Ecological Society
Description: This is the pre-peer-reviewed version of the following article: Martín-Vivaldi, M.; et al. Special structures of hoopoe eggshells enhance the adhesion of symbionts-carrying uropygial secretion to prevent embryo infection. Journal of Animal Ecology, (2014). which has been published in final form at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2656.12243/abstract
Keywords: Antimicrobial defences
Birds
Coevolution
Mutualism
Symbiotic bacteria
Uropygial gland
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10481/33399
ISSN: 1365-2656
Rights : Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 License
Citation: Martín-Vivaldi, M.; et al. Special structures of hoopoe eggshells enhance the adhesion of symbionts-carrying uropygial secretion to prevent embryo infection. Journal of Animal Ecology, [post-print] (2014). [http://hdl.handle.net/10481/33399]
Appears in Collections:DZ - Artículos

Files in This Item:

File Description SizeFormat
Hoopoe_final.mp4Special hoopoe eggs: summary film321.51 MBMPEGView/Open
MartinVivaldi_Eggshells.pdfTexto664.67 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
VIDEO 1.mp4Material complementario4.41 MBMPEGView/Open
VIDEO 2.mp4Material complementario2.2 MBMPEGView/Open
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