Exposure to pesticides and cryptorchidism: geographical evidence of a possible association
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AutorGarcía-Rodríguez, José; García-Martín, Miguel; Nogueras-Ocaña, Mercedes; Luna del Castillo, Juan de Dios; Espigares García, Miguel; Olea, Nicolás; Lardelli-Claret, Pablo
National Institute of Environmental Health
CryptorchidismEcological designPesticidesHormone-disruptive substancesRisk factor
García-Rodríguez, J.; et al. Exposure to pesticides and cryptorchidism: geographical evidence of a possible association. Environmental Health Perspective, 104(10): 1090-1095 (1996). [http://hdl.handle.net/10481/32433]
PatrocinadorThis work was partially supported by the Health Council, Andalusian Regional Government through grant no. 94/556-140.
Synthetic hormone-disrupting chemicals may play a role in the increased frequency of cryptorchidism observed in some studies. We used a spatial ecological design to search for variations in orchidopexy rates in the province of Granada in Spain and to search for relationships between these differences and geographical variations in exposure to pesticides. Orchidopexy rates were estimated for the period from 1980 to 1991 in all municipalities and health care districts served by the University of Granada Hospital. A random sample of males of the same age (1-16 years) admitted for any reason during the same period was used to estimate inpatient control rates. Each municipality was assigned to one of four levels of pesticide use. We used Poisson homogeneity tests to detect significant differences in rates of orchidopexy between districts and between levels of pesticide use. Poisson and logistic regression models were also used to estimate the strength of association between orchidopexy and level of pesticide use. Orchidopexy rates tended to be higher in districts near the Mediterranean coast where intensive farming is widespread. The city of Granada, where the reference hospital is located, also had higher figures both for orchidopexy and inpatient control rates. Regression models showed that the strength of association between orchidopexy and level of pesticide use tended to increase with higher levels of use, with the exception of level 0 (mainly in the city of Granada). Our results are compatible with a hypothetical association between exposure to hormone-disruptive chemicals and the induction of cryptorchidism. Several methodological limitations in the design make it necessary to evaluate the results with caution.