Phytochemical Profile and Nutraceutical Value of Old and Modern Common Wheat Cultivars
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AutorLeoncini, Emanuela; Prata, Cecilia; Malaguti, Marco; Marotti, Ilaria; Segura Carretero, Antonio; Catizone, Pietro; Dinelli, Giovanni; Hrelia, Silvana
Public Library of Science (PLOS)
AntioxidantsFluorescence recovery after photobleachingHL60 cellsOxidative stressPhenolsPhytochemicalsReactive oxygen speciesWheat
Leoncini, E.; et al. Phytochemical Profile and Nutraceutical Value of Old and Modern Common Wheat Cultivars. Plos One, 7(9): e45997 (2012). [http://hdl.handle.net/10481/30949]
PatrocinadorThis work was supported by grants from the Italian Ministry of Economic Development (Project “Made in Italy-over 50”), Emilia Romagna region, Italy (Project “BioPane”, CUP J31J09000430002) and the Italian Ministry of Agriculture (Project “Pane della salute” MiPAF-OIGA, CUP 31J09000370001) and by Fondazione del Monte di Bologna e Ravenna (Italy).
Among health-promoting phytochemicals in whole grains, phenolic compounds have gained attention as they have strong antioxidant properties and can protect against many degenerative diseases. Aim of this study was to profile grain phenolic extracts of one modern and five old common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties and to evaluate their potential antiproliferative or cytoprotective effect in different cell culture systems. Wheat extracts were characterized in terms of antioxidant activity and phenolic composition (HPLC/ESI-TOF-MS profile, polyphenol and flavonoid contents). Results showed that antioxidant activity (FRAP and DPPH) is mostly influenced by flavonoid (both bound and free) content and by the ratio flavonoids/polyphenols. Using a leukemic cell line, HL60, and primary cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, the potential antiproliferative or cytoprotective effects of different wheat genotypes were evaluated in terms of intracellular reactive oxygen species levels and cell viability. All tested wheat phenolic extracts exerted dose-dependent cytoprotective and antiproliferative effects on cardiomyocytes and HL60 cells, respectively. Due to the peculiar phenolic pattern of each wheat variety, a significant genotype effect was highlighted. On the whole, the most relevant scavenging effect was found for the old variety Verna. No significant differences in terms of anti-proliferative activities among wheat genotypes was observed. Results reported in this study evidenced a correspondence between the in vitro antioxidant activity and potential healthy properties of different extracts. This suggests that an increased intake of wheat grain derived products could represent an effective strategy to achieve both chemoprevention and protection against oxidative stress related diseases.