Contribution of the Microbial Communities Detected on an Oil Painting on Canvas to Its Biodeterioration
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AutorLópez-Miras, María del Mar; Martín-Sánchez, Inés; Yebra-Rodríguez, África; Romero-Noguera, Julio; Bolívar-Galiano, Fernando; Ettenauer, Jörg; Sterflinger, Katja; Piñar, Guadalupe
Public Library of Science (PLOS)
Microbial communityOil painting
López-Miras, M.M.; et al. Contribution of the Microbial Communities Detected on an Oil Painting on Canvas to Its Biodeterioration. Plos One, 8(11): e80198 (2013). [http://hdl.handle.net/10481/30722]
PatrocinadorThe FTIR analyses performed in this study were financed by the Junta de Andalucía (RNM-325 group). The molecular analyses performed in this study were financed by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) project ‘Hertha-Firnberg T137’ and the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (Project CTQ2008-06727-C03-03). G. Piñar also thanks the “Elise-Richter V194-B20” projects.
In this study, we investigated the microbial community (bacteria and fungi) colonising an oil painting on canvas, which showed visible signs of biodeterioration. A combined strategy, comprising culture-dependent and -independent techniques, was selected. The results derived from the two techniques were disparate. Most of the isolated bacterial strains belonged to related species of the phylum Firmicutes, as Bacillus sp. and Paenisporosarcina sp., whereas the majority of the non-cultivable members of the bacterial community were shown to be related to species of the phylum Proteobacteria, as Stenotrophomonas sp. Fungal communities also showed discrepancies: the isolated fungal strains belonged to different genera of the order Eurotiales, as Penicillium and Eurotium, and the non-cultivable belonged to species of the order Pleosporales and Saccharomycetales. The cultivable microorganisms, which exhibited enzymatic activities related to the deterioration processes, were selected to evaluate their biodeteriorative potential on canvas paintings; namely Arthrobacter sp. as the representative bacterium and Penicillium sp. as the representative fungus. With this aim, a sample taken from the painting studied in this work was examined to determine the stratigraphic sequence of its cross-section. From this information, “mock paintings,” simulating the structure of the original painting, were prepared, inoculated with the selected bacterial and fungal strains, and subsequently examined by micro-Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, in order to determine their potential susceptibility to microbial degradation. The FTIR-spectra revealed that neither Arthrobacter sp. nor Penicillium sp. alone, were able to induce chemical changes on the various materials used to prepare “mock paintings.” Only when inoculated together, could a synergistic effect on the FTIR-spectra be observed, in the form of a variation in band position on the spectrum.