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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10481/29688

Title: Fish oil supplementation reverses the effect of cholesterol on apoptotic gene expression in smooth muscle cells
Authors: Perales Romero, Sonia
Alejandre Pérez, María José
Palomino Morales, Rogelio
Torres, Carolina
Linares Gil, Ana
Issue Date: 2010
Abstract: Background Nutritional control of gene regulation guides the transformation of smooth muscle cells (SMC) into foam cells in atherosclerosis. Oxidative stress has been reported in areas of lipid accumulation, activating proliferation genes. Suppression of oxidative stress by antioxidant administration reduces this activation and the progression of lesions. We hypothesized that fish oil consumption may protect against atherosclerotic vascular disease. The study objective was to determine the effects of dietary cholesterol and fish-oil intake on the apoptotic pathways induced by 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) in SMC cultures.
Methods An in vivo/in vitro cell model was used, culturing SMC isolated from chicks exposed to an atherogenic cholesterol-rich diet with 5% of cholesterol (SMC-Ch) alone or followed by an anti-atherogenic fish oil-rich diet with 10% of menhaden oil (SMC-Ch-FO) and from chicks on standard diet (SMC-C). Cells were exposed to 25-HC, studying apoptosis levels by flow cytometry (Annexin V) and expressions of caspase-3, c-myc, and p53 genes by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results: Exposure to 25-HC produced apoptosis in all three SMC cultures, which was mediated by increases in caspase-3, c-myc, and p53 gene expression. Changes were more marked in SMC-Ch than in SMC-C, indicating that dietary cholesterol makes SMC more susceptible to 25-HC-mediated apoptosis. Expression of p53 gene was elevated in SMC-Ch-FO. This supports the proposition that endogenous levels of p53 protect SMC against apoptosis and possibly against the development of atherosclerosis. Fish oil attenuated the increase in c-myc levels observed in SMC-C and SMC-Ch, possibly through its influence on the expression of antioxidant genes.
Conclusion Replacement of a cholesterol-rich diet with a fish oil-rich diet produces some reversal of the cholesterol-induced changes, increasing the resistance of SMC to apoptosis.
Sponsorship: This work was aided by grants from the Carlos III Institute of the Spanish Ministry of Health (EC08/00009).
Publisher: Biomed Central
Keywords: Atherosclerosis
Fatty acids
Apoptosis
Cholesterol
Diet
Fish oils
Foam cells
Tumor suppressor protein p53
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10481/29688
ISSN: 1476-511X
Rights : Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 License
Citation: Perales, S.; et al. Fish oil supplementation reverses the effect of cholesterol on apoptotic gene expression in smooth muscle cells. Lipids in Health and Disease, 9: 70 (2010). [http://hdl.handle.net/10481/29688]
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