Psychological well-being, cardiorespiratory fitness, and long-term survival
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AutorOrtega Porcel, Francisco B.; Lee, Duck-Chul; Sui, Xuemei; Kubzansky, Laura D.; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Baruth, Meghan; Castillo Garzón, Manuel J.; Blair, Steven N.
Body mass indexCardiovascular physiological phenomenaExercise testLeisure activitiesLife expectancyMotor activityOxygen consumptionPhysical fitness
Ortega Porcel, F.B.; et al. Psychological well-being, cardiorespiratory fitness, and long-term survival. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 39(5): 440-448 (2010). [http://hdl.handle.net/10481/28880]
PatrocinadorThis study was supported by NIH grants AG06945 and HL62508, and in part by an unrestricted research grant from The Coca-Cola Company. The study also was supported in part by Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Pioneer Portfolio (grant number 63597); the Spanish Ministry of Education (EX-2008-0641, EX-2007-1124); the Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research; and the Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation (20090635).
BACKGROUND: Psychological well-being is associated with mortality/survival. Although cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is one of the strongest predictors of mortality, studies examining the relationship between well-being and survival seldom account for the possible effects of CRF. PURPOSE: This study examined the independent associations of psychological well-being components (low level of negative emotion and high level of positive emotion) and CRF, as well as their combined effects, with survival. METHODS: Participants (N=4888) were examined in 1988-1997 and followed up for a median period of ∼15 years (212 deaths, 4.3%). CRF was assessed by a maximal exercise test on a treadmill. Low-level negative emotion was defined as the minimum score of the negative emotion subscale of the CES-D scale and high-level positive emotion as the maximum score of the positive emotion subscale. Results are presented as hazard ratios (95% CIs). Data were analyzed in 2009. RESULTS: After adjustment for a set of established risk factors, men and women with low levels of negative emotion had lower risk of death than those with higher levels of negative emotion, 0.66 (95% CI=0.50, 0.87). The association persisted after additional adjustment for CRF and positive emotion. High level of positive emotion was not associated with survival. A high level of CRF independently predicted lower risk of death, 0.54 (95% CI=0.37, 0.79), compared to a low level of CRF. The risk of death in participants with both a low level of negative emotion and a high level of CRF was 0.37 (95% CI=0.22, 0.63), compared to their peers with higher levels of negative emotion/low levels of CRF. CONCLUSIONS: Low levels of negative emotion and high levels of CRF are independent predictors of long-term survival in men and women. A strong combined effect was observed, as individuals with both a low level of negative emotion and a high level of CRF had a 63% lower risk of premature death than those with higher levels of negative emotion and a low level of CRF.