Pharmacogenetics of osteoporosis: Towards novel theranostics for personalized medicine?
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AutorRojo-Venegas, Karen; Aguilera Gómez, Margarita; Cañadas-Garre, María Luisa; García Sánchez, Antonio; Contreras-Ortega, Carlos; Calleja Hernández, Miguel Ángel
TheranosticsPharmacogeneticsOsteoporosisNovel diagnosticsAtniresorptive drugsClinical translationBMDFractures
Osteoporosis is a complex multifactorial bone disorder with a strong genetic basis. It is the most common, severe, progressive skeletal illness that has been increasing, particularly in developed countries. Osteoporosis will no doubt constitute a serious clinical burden in healthcare management in the coming decades. The genetics of osteoporosis should be analyzed from both the disease susceptibility and the pharmacogenetic treatment perspectives. The former has been widely studied and discussed, while the latter still requires much more information and research. This article provides a synthesis of the literature on the genetics of osteoporosis and an update on progress made in pharmacogenetics of osteoporosis in recent years, specifically regarding the new molecular targets for antiresorptive drugs. In-depth translation of osteoporosis pharmacogenetics approaches to clinical practice demands a new vision grounded on the concept of "theranostics," that is, the integration of diagnostics for both disease susceptibility testing, as well as for prediction of health intervention outcomes. In essence, theranostics signals a broadening in the scope of inquiry in diagnostics medicine. The upcoming wave of theranostics medicine also suggests more distributed forms of science and knowledge production, both by experts and end-users of scientific products. Both the diagnosis and personalized treatment of osteoporosis could conceivably benefit from the emerging postgenomics field of theranostics.