Human exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals and prenatal risk factors for cryptorchidism and hypospadias: a nested case-control study
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AutorFernández, Mariana F.; Olmos, Begoña; Granada García, Alicia Elena; López-Espinosa, María José; Molina-Molina, José-Manuel; Fernández, Juan Manuel; Cruz, Milagros; Olea Serrano, Fátima; Olea, Nicolás
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
CryptorchidismEndocrine-disrupting chemicalsEnvironmental estrogenshypo-spadiasOccupational exposureRisk factors
Fernández, M.F.; et al. Human exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals and prenatal risk factors for cryptorchidism and hypospadias: a nested case-control study. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115(S-1): 8-14 (2007). [http://hdl.handle.net/10481/24822]
BACKGROUND Exposure to xenoestrogens during pregnancy may disturb the development and function of male sexual organs. OBJECTIVE In this study we aimed to determine whether the combined effect of environmental estrogens measured as total effective xenoestrogen burden (TEXB) is a risk factor for male urogenital malformations. METHODS In a case–control study, nested in a mother–child cohort (n = 702) established at Granada University Hospital, we compared 50 newborns with diagnosis of cryptorchidism and/or hypospadias with 114 boys without malformations matched by gestational age, date of birth, and parity. Controls did not differ from the total cohort in confounding variables. TEXB and levels of 16 organochlorine pesticides were measured in placenta tissues. Characteristics of parents, pregnancy, and birth were gathered by questionnaire. We used conditional and unconditional regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS TEXB from organohalogenated compounds was detectable in 72% and 54% of case and control placentas, respectively. Compared with controls, cases had an OR for detectable versus non-detectable TEXB of 2.82 (95% CI, 1.10–7.24). More pesticides were detected in cases than in controls (9.34 ± 3.19 vs. 6.97 ± 3.93). ORs for cases with detectable levels of pesticides, after adjusting for potential confounders in the conditional regression analysis, were o,p′-DDT (OR = 2.25; 95% CI, 1.03–4.89), p,p′-DDT (OR = 2.63; 95% CI, 1.21–5.72), lindane (OR = 3.38; 95% CI, 1.36–8.38), mirex (OR = 2.85; 95% CI, 1.22–6.66), and endosulfan alpha (OR = 2.19; 95% CI, 0.99–4.82). Engagement of mothers in agriculture (OR = 3.47; 95% CI, 1.33–9.03), fathers’ occupational exposure to xenoestrogens (OR = 2.98; 95% CI, 1.11–8.01), and history of previous stillbirths (OR = 4.20; 95% CI, 1.11–16.66) were also associated with risk of malformations. CONCLUSIONS We found an increased risk for male urogenital malformations related to the combined effect of environmental estrogens in placenta.